Welcome to Friday’s Philosophical Foray beyond Healthcare.
Exploring the Metaphysical & cognitive origins of Western thought: A unique viewpoint by Professor Jordan Peterson.
A Self-evident axiomatic principle of the intrinsic value of the individual >>> A proposition of Natural Rights >>> Emergence of social principles & Law based on individual sovereignty & Natural Rights >>> Moving beyond savage tribalism & divine rights >>> Unity based on collective belief in same axiomatic principles >>> Diverse elements find common ground >>> Societies more stable by way of respect for rights & sovereignty >>> Gives people tools to correct corruption & dysfunction in societal hierarchies to avoid deterioration into chaos.
The article below details the reasons why we need to get data right; and even more so with metadata. Because the combined effect of compiling (bad or inadequate) data does not make it more reliable; it likely compounds the error.
This is particularly problematic in scientific academy within the areas of medicine and nutrition research, as John Ioannidis has clearly exposed in his work.
Scientific data can go “absent without leave” for a number of different reasons:
Scientists don’t archive their data properly and they lose track of it, can’t make sense of it, or their hard-drive dies and they don’t have a back-up. This happens surprisingly (and embarrassingly) often.
Scientists begin a study but abandon it before it is completed due to lack of funds, unpromising preliminary results, or other priorities. The data might be useful in combination with data from other studies, but it’s not publishable on its own.
Scientists selectively publish data that supports a particular theory. Inconvenient data are quietly forgotten.
Scientists try and publish data but are unsuccessful because the results aren’t considered interesting enough by the scientific journals.
Knowing how difficult it will be to publish a null result, scientists prioritise writing up studies that gave them more publishable results.
The end result is what’s become known as the “file drawer problem”. The published scientific literature represents only a small and biased sample of the research that has actually been conducted. The rest is stuffed away at the back of the metaphorical filing cabinet.
There’s a lot of wasted effort here — data collected and then not used. But the bigger problem is the bias in what is published.
The drug is currently approved for malaria and also for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, which is its main use in the U.S. It’s therefore available to be prescribed off-label, and some clinicians have already said they’re using it on COVID-19 patients. But neither Hahn nor other task force members addressed whether enough hydroxychloroquine is on hand to treat large numbers of coronavirus cases. Convalescent plasma is another treatment the FDA is considering for COVID-19, said FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn, MD.
Convalescent plasma and the immune globulin that it contains is another possible treatment the agency is considering, Hahn added. “FDA’s been working for some time on this,” he said. “If you’ve been exposed to coronavirus and you’re better — you don’t have the virus in your blood — we could collect the blood, concentrate that and have the ability, once it’s pathogen-free, to give that to other patients, and the immune response could potentially provide a benefit to patients. That’s another thing we’re looking at; over the next couple of weeks, we’ll have information and we’re really pushing hard to try to accelerate that.” Such treatments have been effective in Ebola, for example.
The claim that medical errors are the third leading cause of death in the US has always rested on very shaky evidence; yet it’s become common wisdom that is cited as though everyone accepts it. But if estimates of 250,000 to 400,000 deaths due to medical error are way too high, what is the real number? A study published last month suggests that it’s almost certainly a lot lower and has been modestly decreasing since 1990.
A new survey conducted in the United States by theCampaign for Free Speechfound 51 percent of Americans agreed with this statement: “The First Amendment goes too far in allowing hate speech in modern America and should be updated to reflect the cultural norms of today.” 48 percent thought, and a majority of millennials agreed, “hate speech” should be outlawed. An astonishing 54 percent of millennials thought jail time should be the consequence penalty for hate speech. Hate speech was not defined in the survey.
In a future democratic socialist administration mired in economic collapse, is it a stretch to predict that protection of free speech will continue to wane making criticism of government policies verboten?
If disagreement over the number of genders can’t be tolerated, surely disagreements on a debt jubilee or a wealth tax wouldn’t be tolerated either.
However, as America’s founders attested so vehemently, rights are at the core of social interactions and government, violations of which can justify revolution. And unlike the physical sciences, where the goal of language is precision, in the social sciences, the language (and thus analysis) is often quite vague and inconsistent (e.g., current versions of “social justice” are inconsistent with the traditional meaning of “justice”), making clear communication, much less clear analysis, far harder.
What is the upshot of all this? Economics is not like physical sciences, and reasoning and analogies based on them are often misleading in economics. Further, they can be dangerous to society, particularly in the mouths of those who wish to subject others to their command and control. That is why Friedrich Hayek wrote,
“The curious task of economics is to demonstrate to men how little they really know about what they imagine they can design.”
In other words, economics is a science whose principles and logic tell us why we cannot know enough to control people, even if we do know enough to control rockets.
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